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Princeton Review Part 2

Page history last edited by Eli Pollock 13 years, 2 months ago



Motivation is a need or desire that energizes behavior.

     Primary drives are hunger, thirst, sleep, and reproduction

     Secondary drives are to obtain learned reinforcers.

Olds and Milner discovered tha rats would press a bar to stimulate a part of their brains (intercranial self-stimulation).

There are several theories about the link between the brain and motivation 

     Instinct theory:  learning of species-specific behavior motivates organisms to do what is necessary to survive

     Arousal theory:  a certain level of arousal (alertness) is needed for certain tasks.  The Yerkes-Dodson law states that tasks of moderate difficulty elicit the highest level of performance.  So certain tasks elicit the greatest arousal, and therefore the greatest motivation.  Hard or easy tasks require less arousal.

     Opponent process theory:  Stimuli are either pleasurable or not, and an opponent process brings our brains back to a motivational baseline.  The response to stimuli can habituate, but the opponent process doesn't habituate so we need more and more stimulation to get the same lasting response.

     Drive-reduction theory:  Most motivation is our bodies trying to maintain homeostasis.  The lateral and ventromedial hypothalamus sends messages to the body to return to the set-point


Hypothalamus controls feeding.

          Ventromedial hypothalamus turns of eating

          Lateral hypothalamus turns on eating

     Glutostatic hypothesis:  Hypothalamus measures glucose in the blood; this theory has some flaws

     Lipostatic hypothesis:  hypothalamus measures fat; leptin may be used to measure it.

     Both theories are probably correct, with the body monitoring sugar and fat

     Disorders in hunger:  anorexia nervosa (related to body dysmorphyia, or distorted body image) and bulimia nervosa

Lateral hypothalamus and preoptic area involved in drinking.

     Osmoreceptors and volumetric receptors are involved in detecting thirst; angiotensin is released

Hypothalamus controls pituitary gland, which is in charge of sex.  It releases androgens for malea and estrogens for females


Biological theory is that instinct drives motivated behavior

Humanistic theoryMaslow's hierargy of needs is involved here.  Needs go from physiological needs to savety and security, belongingness, self-esteem, to self-actualization, which is when people creatively and meaningfully fulfill their potential.

Cognitive theories:  Intrinsic (from within ourselves) and extrinsic (from the environment) factors influence us.

     Self-determination:  an intrinsic motivator that is the need to feel competent and in control

     Self-efficacy:  belief that we can or cannot attain a particular goal 

Social theory:  Henry Murray broke down needs into twenty specific types, such as need for affiliation

     Cognitive dissonance is that people are motivated to reduce tension produced by conflicting thoughts

     Kurt Lewin classified conflicts into foar types:

          approach-approach:  one has to decide between two desirable options

          avoidance-avoidance:  one has to decide between two undesirable options

          approach-avoidance:  one choice with both plus and minuses

          multiple approach-avoidance:  multiple options, but all have positives and negatives


Emotions are experiential responses to certain internal and external stimuli

     James-Lange theory:  environmental stimuli cause physiological changes and responses, which causes emotion.  This theory is incorect because physiological states can have multiple emotions associated with them

     Cannon-Bard theory:  physiological response and emotion occur spontaneously as a reaction to a stimulus.  Reaction is made by the thalamus.

     Two-factor theory, proposed by Schacter and Singer, states that stimulus causes physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal, which both contribute to the experience of an emotion.  Amygdala and cortex are responsible for emotions, in addition to the thalamus.


Most stressors are everyday events.  All stressors cause challenges.

     Some are transient (temporary), which others are chronic and can cause health problems.

Fight-or-flight response is the physiological response to stress and the concept was developed by Hans Selye.

Walter Cannon adapted it into the general adaptation theory.  There are three stages:

     Alarm:  arousal of sympathetic nervous system.  Corticosterone is a hormone released

     Resistance:  parasympathetic rebound, as body tries to relax

     Exhaustion:  if stressor continues long enough, tissue cannot be repared and immune system becomes impaired

Richard Lazarus developed a cognitive theory about stress.  Stress is minimized or maximized by the individual's ability to respond.

Type-A personalities are easily stressed; Type-B people are not.  Type-As are more susceptible to stress-related diseases but survive them more frequently. 



LIFE-SPAN APPROACH- takes the view that develpment does not have a clear ending.  Championed by Erik Erikson

Normative development:  typical sequence of developmental changes for a group of people.

     Cross-sectional method of studying normative development:  compares groups of people of various ages

     Longitudinal method:  Follows a set of people over a long portion of their lives; more difficult but eliminates generation differences present in cross-sectional method

DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES:  it's a big part of the nature-nurture debate

     Maturationists:  empasize role of genetically programmed growth, especially on nervous system

          Maturation:  biological readiness

     Environmentalists:  believe growth comes from experiences

Development could be continuous or discontinuous (gradual or in stages)

Critical period:  a time when a skill or ability must develop

Culture:  influences development

     Collectivist:  needs of society are placed before individual

     Individualist:  personal needs above those of society

DEVELOPMENTAL THEORIES- either stages or continuous

Physical development:

     starts at conception.  Zygote to embryo to fetus.

          Teratogens such as alcohol can lead to harm

     Newborn babies are called neonates.  They have several important reflexes.

          Sucking reflex- putting something in baby's mouth

          Palmar reflex- hand grabs

          Babinski reflex:  stroking foot makes toes splay

          Head-turning/rooting reflex:  brush the cheek

          Moro reflex:  splaying of limbs when a loud noise is heard

          Orienting reflex:  orient themselves to sudden changes.  This reflex continues into adulthood

         Stereotyped ingestive responses:  baby will react to certain tastes   

     Environmental interaction is necessary for motor and perceptual development

     Puberty- blah blah blah

     Peak of physical development is in early adulthood

Cognitive Development:  learning, memory, reasoning, problem-solving, etc.

     Jean Piaget is very important here. 

          Theory based on equilibration, or child's attempt to reach a balance between what the child encounters and what cognitive stuctures the child brings to the situation

          Schemas are mental representation models for things

               Assimilation:  incorporating new ideas into schemas

               Accomodation:  modifying schema definitions


          Sensorimotor:  First two years; object permanence develops

          Preoperational:  Ages two to seven; symbolic thinking develops; marked by egocentrism; aritificialism (belief that all things are human-made) and animism (all things are living).

          Concret operational:  Ages 7-12; conservation skills develop

          Formal operational:  12+; full understanding of abstract thought and capable of metacognition (ability to recognize one's own cognitive processes

     Piaget's theory was not universally accepted

Lev Vygotsky had another cognitive development theory

     Social forces are most important; internalization is soaking up knowledge

     Proposed a zone of proximal development, which is the difference between the observed level of ability and the latent level of ability.  Observed ability rarely lives up to full latent potential because environment is not optimal

As fluid intelligence decreases, crystallized intelligence increases

Wisdom is a form of insight into life situations

SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT-  Erik Erikson is the important person here.  His theory of psychosocial development divides the life into a series of stages marked by tasts such as:

     Trust vs. Mistrust- infants have to decide if world is friendly or hostile

     Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt- 1-3 children must master bodily functions and control over environment (walking)

     Initiative vs. guilt- 3-6 children must assert themselves socially

     Industry vs. inferiority- 6-12 children must gain a sense of accoplishment and competence

     Identity vs. role confusion- adolescents search for identity.  result is fidelity, or being true to yourself

     Intimacy vs. Isolation-  early adulthood where we form relationships

     Generativity vs. stagnation-  middle adulthood and people want to leave a mark on the world

     Intergrity vs. despair-  old people have to come to terms with their lives and gain wisdom

Harry Harlow and his monkeys.  Demonstrated that monkeys wanted comfort and security.

Mary Ainsworth did "strange situation" experiment and recognize three kinds of attachment:

     Secure:  infant uses the parent for support

     Insecure:  child is not sure whether the parent will be supportive and acts erratically.  7-15% of population

     Avoidant:  child does not use parent for support; mainly in abused children

Three kinds of parenting:

     Authoritarian:  Strict parents; children become withdrawn

     Authoritative:  parents are firm but forgiving.  children are happiest.

     Permissive:  Parents are very chill.  Children are bad at accepting responsibility or being generous

Death and dying:  Elisabeth Kubler-Ross believed that people come to terms with terminal illness though denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.  Now widely to believed not in any particular order.

MORAL DEVELOPMENT-Lawrence Kohlberg is the big name for this one.  His theory has three levels, each with two stages:

     Preconventional morality: ages 7-10

          Stage 1:  Avoiding punishment and getting rewards

          2:  focus on individualism and exchange (trading things to benefit themselves)

     Conventional morality:  ages 10-16+

          3:  Living up to others' expectations

          4:  Develop a conscience based on society's rules     

     Postconventional morality:  ages 16+

          5:  Belief in individual rights

          6:  Belief in universal principles of justice.  See "superhero"

Carol Gilligan:  Kohlberg's theory doesn't apply to women and non-western culture. Development of caring relationships are central to moral progress.


Psychosexual development is having an awareness of one's own sexuality 

     Gender identity begins at ages 2-3

     Gender typing (stereotypes) begin from 2-7.

          Androgyny may develop as individuals blur the lines between male and female "roles", like being sometimes aggressive and sometimes gentle

Freud outlined four major stages:

     Oral stage:  first two years when primary source of pleasure comes from sucking

     Anal stage:  2-4; child enjoys eliminating waste, primarily through defecation

     Phallic stage :  4-middle childhood:  child discovers that genital stimulation is pleasurable

     Latency period:  For a little while, sexual issues are suppressed

     Genital stage:  Starts at adolescence and begins establishment of heterosexual relationships

          Fixation could occur at any stage if it was not completed and leads to psychological problems.  Oedipal conflict, a boy's desire for his mother, occurs in the phallic stage.  Electra conflict is girl's desire for her father.  According to Freud, not solving these conflicts could lead to homosexuality

     Bandura believed that sex roles are developed through social learning (boys are rewarded for being masculine)


PERSONALITY- a person's enduring general style of dealing with others and the world around them.  Theories divided into psychoanalytic, humanistic, social-cognitive, and trait theories

Psychoanalytic theories:  Freudian stuff

     Psychodynamic:  an approach based on several Freudian concepts combined with modern ideas

     Free association:  therapist listens while patient relaxes and reports anything that comes to mind.  Trying to look into the unconscious mind.

     Freudian symbols: items that appear in dreams have hidden meanings.  Weapons represent male genitalia, while storage vessels represent female.

     Mind consists of id, ego, and superego

          Id:  source of mental energy and drive, encompasses basic needs and desires.  Operates on pleasure principle (desire for more pleasure and less pain)

          Superego:  polar opposite of the id, operates purely on societal rules

          Ego:  Operates on reality and logic.  Operates on reality principle (desires that can be satisfied realistically)

     Ego deals with id-superego conflict by using defense mechanisms

          Repression:  defense mechanism to push unpleasant memories or desires into unconscious

          Displacement:  directs anger away from the source to a less threatening object

          Reaction formation:  ego reverses direction of a disturbing desire to make that desire acceptable

          Compensation:  making up failures by successes

          Rationalization:  creating logical excuses for irrational behavior

          Regression:  reverting to childish behaviors

          Denial:  refusal to acknowlege something

          Sublimination:  redirecting sexual or aggressive feelings into a more acceptable output

     Karen Horney:  pointed out male bias in Freud's work.  Developed theory of personality based on need for security.  Basic anxiety is present in childhood; the way a child deals with this determines their personality

     Carl Jung:  Mind is made of persona (what a person presents) and a shadow (inner person).  Also said we all have an anima and animus, or both male and female sides.  The Self balances these opposing forces.  Also said there is a personal unconscious of private repressed memories and a collective unconscious of memory/behavior common to all humans.  Archetypes are items in the collective unconscious.

     Alfred Adler:  believed that best way to live was a lifestyle of contributing to society.  Otherwise, a person might have an inferiority complex based on their lack of size or competence in childhood.

Humanistic Theories:  Emphasize uniqueness and richness of being human.  Anti-behaviorist.  People are not divisible into learned reactions and personality components. 

     Self-actualization is ultimate purpose of existence.  See Maslow.

     Carl Rogers:  self is most important pat of personality

          Self-concept:  mental representation of who we think we are

          Incongruence:  conflict between or self-concept and actual actions

          Conditions of worth:  other peoples' evaluations of us distort self-concept

          Unconditional positive regard:  people should be treated well no matter what

Social-cognitive theories:  based on cognitive constructs being basis for personality

     Albert Bandura:  focused on self-efficacy, or people's beliefs on their abilities

          Explanatory styles:  ways in which people explain themselves in different situations (positive or negative)

     Julian Rotter:  locus of control theory (exten t to when people believe their performance is due to their own efforts

          Internal locus of control vs. external locus of control

Trait Theories:  Quantitative system for describling traits (predispostitions that are inborn)

     Big Five:  introversion-extroversion, neuroticism-stability, agreeableness-antagonism, conscientiousness-undirectedness, and openness-nonopenness

          Nomothetic analysis:  universal traits

          Idiographic:  traits that are unique to the individual

     Gordon Allport identified three types of traits:

          Cardinal (override a person's whole being

          Central (primary characteristics)

          Secondary (make up interests)

     Raymond Cattell believed that sixteen source traits (underlying characteristics) are the basis of personality

     Walter Mischel recognized that traits often vary across situations

Each personality theory has some insight but also has some flaws


     Psychoanalytic is with therapist and patient

     Humanistic is very difficult to test; relies mainly on interviews

     Social-cognitive can have questionnaire assessments of personality, such as Rotter's locus-of-control questionnaire

     Trait theorists win in terms of assessment.

     Eysench Personality Inventory:  Questionnaire to examine traits

     Cattell had a 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire.

     MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, second edition) is very widely used.


     Self-concept refers to how we view ourselves.  Divided into the me and the I

          Me is...

               Physical self (body, name)

               Active self (behavior)

               Social self (interactions)

               Psychological self (feelings and personality)

          I is responsible for the coordingation and interpretation of the me.  How we perceive ourselves

     Self-esteem is how we value ourselves and develops with age

          Halo effect:  children misjudge themselves because they think that being competent in one area means all-around competence

          Eleven domains of competence eventually emerge:  morality, sociability, intimacy, athleticism, intelligence, sense of humor, nurturance, job competence, adequacy as a provider, physical appearance, and household management.



     Standardization is accomplished by administering the test to a standardization sample, or group of people representing the population.  The data is compared with norms (the standard).  The Flynn effect states that restandardization is important because the population has gotten smarter

     Reliability is how consistent a test is.  Total reliability has a reliability coefficient of 1.  Applies only to groups.

          Test-retest method makes sure that people score the same multiple times.

          Split-half method is where two groups each take half the test and makes sure scores are same for each

          Equivalent form is where two groups take different tests covering the same material.

     Valitidy is how well a test correlates with what measures it is suppost to predict.  Tests can be reliable but not valid.  They cannot be valid and not reliable.  Good tests are both.

          Predictive validity:  correlation between test and future performance

          Content validity:  content should be what testers say it should be

          Construct validity:  true valitdity; it has to measure what it is supposed to test

Projective tests:  ambiguous stimili are interpretated by the test-taker

     Rorschach Inkblot Test:  people interpret 10 inkblots.  Can determine personality

     Thematic Apperception Test:  The TAT has people tell a story about an ambiguous picture of people.  Also can measure personality.

Inventory-type tests:  have fixed answers to questions.  the MMPI-2 is an example.

Power tests:  gauge abilities is certain areas.  Extremely difficult

Speed tests:  easy questions but timed

Achievement tests: assess knowlege gained (like AP tests)

Aptitute tests:  measure ability (like driving)

INTELLIGENCE- goal-directed adaptive thinking.  Difficult to measure on a standardized test.

     Standford-Binet scale:  started out as ratio of mental age over chronological age, later became Intelligence Quotient (IQ).

     Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R)/Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) are most common measures

     Charles Spearman proposed there is a general intelligence (g factor) that is the basis for all intelligence.

     Robert Sternberg proposed that intelligence was broken into analytical, practical, and creative

     Louis Thurstone thought intelligence was very broad

     Howard Gardner identified:  verbal, mathematical, musical, spatial, kinesthetic, environmental, interpersonal (people perceptive) and intrapersonal (self-awareness).

     Daniel Goleman has done work on emotional intelligence (ability to recognize others' intents and motivations)


     Many psychologists believe that heritability coeficcient (proportion of genetic effects on IQ) is about .5


     IQs are roughly normally distributed, centered around 100 with a standard deviation of about 15-16.  IQ in the 99th percentile (over 135) is usually seen as gifted.

     Louis Termann found that IQ does not necessarily lead to success

     Mild retardation is IQ from 50-70, and profound is lower than 25, although low IQ is not the only measure


Psychometrics=psychological testing.  It has certain rules:


     Purposes must be clear to all

     Taker should know how results will be used

     Impact of scores should be ascertained


ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR- unusual, maladaptive, labeled as abnormal by society, and characterized by perceptual or cognitive dysfunction


     Psychoanalytic idea:  imbalance of id, ego, and superego

     Humanistic:  people are too sensitive to the criticisms and judgments of others.  Also, lack of positive regard as a child

     Cognitive:  Distortions in the cognitive process

     Behavioral:  abnormal behavior has been at some point reinforced

     Biological:  manifestation of abnormal brain function.  Supports medication as an answer

     Sociocultural:  society and culture define what is acceptable behavior


     The DSM-IV-TR is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual; the American Psychiatric Association's handbook for finding abnormalities.  Five axes of behavior to find disorders:

     Axis I:  major disorders like schizophrenia and mood.  Also dealls with perceptual, cognitive, eating, sleeping, and substance-related disorders

     Axis II:  Personality and retardation disorders

     Axis III:  Physical disorders that impact behavior.

     Axis IV:  Assesses level of psychosocial and environmental stress

     Axis V:  represents an overall assessment of person's level of functioning.

     DSM-IV-TR is criticized for labeling people so that they are judged differently

ANXIETY DISORDERS- characterized by feelings of tension and nervousness

     Panic disorders: recurring panic attacks and worry about panic attacks

     Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD):  almost constant state of autonomic nervous system arousal and worry

     Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD):  involuntary repetitive behaviors that are time consuming and maladaptive

     Post-traumatic stress disorder:  detachment from reality; recurring thoughts related to a certain trauma

     Phobias:   irrational fears.  Agoraphobia is fear of being in open spaces.

SOMATOFORM DISORDERS- physical symptoms without any physical cause

     Conversion disorder:  called hysteria by Freud; when a psychological problem manifests itself as a physiological problem

     Hypochondriasis:  person is concerned with being sick.  May result in:

          Factitious disorders:  people make themselves injured to produce symptoms 

MOOD DISORDERS- extreme emotional imbalance

     Unipolar/major depression:  depressed mood.  Must last for two weeks to be diagnosed.  Linked to situational and biological factos.  Low levels of serotonin.  If lasting for more than two years, it becomes dysthymic disorder 

     Bipolar disorder:  Depression mixed with manic episodes of exteme excitedness.  Probably biologically based.

     Seasonal affective disorder:  people get depressed during winter

SCHIZOPHRENIC DISORDERS- family of disorders with delusions, hallucinations, distured responses, etc

Dopamine hypothesis:  these people have excess number of dopamine receptors; also possible genetic link

     Disorganized schizophrenia:  Incoherent speech; flat or innapropriate emotional affect

     Catatonic:  stupor and rigid body posture for long periods of time

     Paranoid: hallucinations and feelings of persecution

     Undifferentiated:  multiple symptoms

     Residual:  display schizoid traits but are not diagnosed

ORGANIC DISORDERS- damage to brain tissue

     Dementia, Alzheimer's, and some drug/alcohol dependence


     Paranoid persodality disorder:  extreme distrust

     Antisocial:  disregard for rights or interests of others

     Narcissistic:  self-preoccupation

     Dependent:  a need to be cared for

     Histrionic:  excessive emotional reactions and excitability and need for attention

DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS- involve memory or altered sense of identity

     Amnesia:  sudden loss of memory; usually after a traumatic event

          Anterograde amnesia:  loss of memories occuring after the event

          retrograde:  loss of memories before the event

     Fugue:  sudden and complete loss of identity; followed by stress and finding of a new identity.  People often move

     Dissociative identity disorder (DID):  formerly called multiple personality disorder; it is when a person has two or more identities; some question as to whether this actually exists


     Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is where there is inattentiveness; possible fidgeting and need for attention.  Conduct disorder and oppositional defiance disorder are other examples.

     Autism:  difficulty communicating; limiting behaviors

     Oppositional defiance disorder:  people are stubborn and angry 



Psychoanalytic and Humanistic Approaches:  based on insight into the problem.

     Psychoanalysis:  Free association and hypnosis used to find unconscious cause of a problem; analyzes latent content of dreams.

          Transference is when the patient reveals thoughts and feelings to the therapist; countertransference is the opposite relationship and is not good.

     Humanistic:  client-centered therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, assumes that clients can only be understood in terms of their own reality.  Uses a nondirectional approach and focuses on client's perception.  Therapist must have genuineness and be an active listener.  The key is unconditional positive regardAccurate empathetic understanding is also crucial:  therapist must understand where the client is coming from

          Gestalt therapy:  Fritz Perls developed this and combines physical and mental therapies

Behavioral Therapy:  short-term process, unlike insight therapies.  Abnormal behavior is both problem and symptom.

     Counterconditioning:  a given stimulus is replaced by a different response to discourage behavior

     Aversion therapy:  aversive stimulus is paired with the bad behavior.  Antabuse is administered to alcoholocs.

     Systematic desensitization:  one response, like anxiety, is replaced with another, like relaxation

     Extinction procedures:  weaken maladaptive responses

          Flooding:  exposing a client to stimulus that causes the response.  They eventually get used to it.

          Implosion:  Client imagines the stimulus instead of confronting it

     Behavioral contracting:  a form of operant conditioning in when the therapist and client draw up a contract

     Modeling:  clients watch someone act in a certain way and receive a reward

Cognitive Therapy:  relies on changing how people think about situations

     Rational-emotive behavior therapy (developed by Albert Ellis):  patients are told why their irrational thoughts are wrong in order to change their emotional responses

     Cognitive therapy (developed by Aaron Beck):  gets rid of maladaptive schemas that are part of the negative triad of depression (bad view of self, world, and future).

          Arbitrary interference:  maladaptive schema where people draw conclusions without evidence

          Dichotomous thinking:  all-or-none conceptions of situations

Biological Therapies:  medical approaches

     Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT):  shocking peoples' brains.  Successful in treating major depression.  Risk of memory loss.

     Psychosurgery:  operating on the brain

          Prefrontal lobotomy:  used in 1930sto 50s but often left violent patients in zombie-like state

     Psychopharmacology:  using drugs.  there are four kinds:

          Antipsychotics (Clozapine, Thorazine, Haldol, etc):  block dopamine receptors, useful for schizophrenia.  side effects are muscle problems


               MAO inhibitors increase serotonin and norepinephrine by slowing their breakdown. 

               Tricyclics also increase same neurotransmitters but are less toxic. 

               Selective reuptake inhibotors block reuptake.  Prozac is an example.

          Anxiolytics:  depress central nervous system and increase well-being while reducing insomnia and anxiety.  Xanax is an example.

          Benzodiazepines like Valium cause muscle relaxation and tranquility.

     Lithium Carbonate helps bipolar disorder, but not much else is known.


     Group therapy is where clients meet together with a therapist in an interactive group.

          Twelve-step programs are one form.  Modeled after Alcoholics Anonymous

     Couples or family therapy is also used.


SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY- study of people in interaction with one another

Group dynamics:  phenomena observed when people interact

     Social facilitation:  increase in performance when in a group setting

     Social inhibition:  opposite.  Often occurs with giving a speech

     Social loafing:  reduced effort when working with a group

     Group polarization:  judgment within a group is more extreme than what individuals would think

People have different ways of solving prroblems

     Cooperative orientation:  try to maximize outcomes for all individuals

     Altruistic orientation:   seek to maximize outcome for others

     Individualistic:  Maximize own benefit

     Competitive:  similar to individual, except it can be at expense of others

Irving Janis came up with "groupthink."  Groups are so driven to reach a unanimous decision that they don't think about possible mistakes.  The mindguard is a person that keeps the thinking homogeneous.

ATTRIBUTION-  how people assignt responsibility for certain outcomes

     Dispositional attribution assumes that behavioral causes are internal

     Situational attribution assigns te cause to environment

     Self-serving bias sees cause as dispositional only when outcome is positive; otherwise blames it on situation

     Fundamental attribution error:  people are more likely to judge others on their internal attributes that their situational attributes.

     Self-fulfilling prophecy:  When someone expects another person to do something, that other person seems to do so.  Known as the Rosenthal Effect.


     Interpsersonal attraction is the tendency to positively evaluate a person and gravitate to that person.

     Mere exposure effect:  proximity to another person makes them more favorable


Conformity:  modification of behavior to make it agree with that of a group.

     Soloman Asch found that people will conform to groups.

     Factors influencing conformity include size of group, unamity of group opinion, social status of individual, and gender

Compliance:  propensity to accede to the requests of others.

     Foot-in-the-door phenomenon:  small requests can be worked up to bigger requests.

Obedience:  doing what others say. 

     Stanley Milgram had the famous shock experiment.  People tend to be obedient to authority figures despite outrageous requests.


Attitudes are combinations of emotional and perceptual reactions to stimuli

Persuasion is process by which a person or group an influence attitudes of others

     Use of facts are the central route to persuasion

     People with high self-esteem are less likely to be persuaded. 

Cognitive dissonance is when attitudes and behaviors contradict each other.  Leon Festinger found that people are more likely to alter their attitude to fit their behavior.


Murder of Kitty Genovese happened while 38 people saw/heard was going on, but nobody acted.  This is known as the bystander effect.  Occurs when there is a diffusion of responsibility.  Altruism (selfless sacrifice) reduces bystander effect

ORGANIZATION PSYCHOLOGY- deals with the workplace

Equity theory:  Workers evaluate their efforts versus rewards.

Human factors research deals with the interaction of person and machine

Hawthorne effect:  workers who are monitored work more efficiently


Prejudice:  negative attitude towards members of a group without evidence


          Outgroup homogeneity (everyone not alike us is similar)

          Illusory correlation:  relationships where they don't exist (like saying black people are criminals)

     Contact hypothesis:  prejudices would disappear if groups were exposed to one another

Agression:  behavior to cause harm to another person

     Hostile aggression:  emotional and impultive

     Instrumental aggression:  committed to gain something of value.

     Dehumanization:  victims are seen as less than human

          Zimbardo prison experiment:  had to be stotpped because people began taking roles too seriously.



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