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Terms

Page history last edited by PBworks 15 years, 1 month ago
Here are terms and people. Once again, it would be great if people would add and complete the ones we have up on the wiki. 

 

 

 

  1. Aaron Beck's View of Depression- negative thoughts, generated by dysfunctional beliefs are typically the primary cause of depressive symptoms. A direct relationship occurs between the amount and severity of someone's negative thoughts and the severity of their depressive symptoms. In other words, the more negative thoughts you experience, the more depressed you will become.
  2. Absolute threshold – minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus half of the time.
  3. Achievement vs. aptitude tests – achievement tests what you already know. Aptitude tests what you are capable of learning.
  4. Action vs. resting potential need
  5. Acuity-vision – the sharpness of vision.
  6. Afferent Neurons vs. Efferent Neurons need
  7. Agonist vs. antagonist chemicals need
  8. Ainsworth Strange Situation (Paradigm) need
  9. Albert Bandura: major view on learning and Bobo Doll experiment  need
  10. Albert Ellis - Rational Emotive Therapy (RET)
  11. Alfred Adler - inferiority complex
  12. Algorithm – methodical and logical way to solve a problem. Takes longer but is most accurate. Contrasts with heuristics. Ex: Trying to find a four letter word by guessing AAAA, AAAB, AAAC, etc.
  13. All-or-nothing law (all-or-none) of neural firing need
  14. Altruism – unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
  15. American Psychological Association (APA) need
  16. Amnesia (anteriograde & retrograde) – memory loss.
  17. Androgyny – having components of both masculinity and femininity. No longer a mental health disorder. Person associated with it is Sandra Bem.
  18. Apparent motion need
  19. Arousal need
  20. Asch's conformity study (line segments) need
  21. Attachment – emotional tie with another person. Evident in young kids seeking closeness to a caregiver and being distressed when separated.
  22. Attribution theory – study of processes where people ascribe motives to their own and others’ behavior. Can be internal/personal or external/circumstantial. People associated with it are Kelley and Heider.
  23. Aversive conditioning (good or bad?) need
  24. Aversive conditions
  25. Babinsky response need
  26. Behavior as being adaptive  need
  27. Bell curve (normal distribution) need
  28. Benjamin Worf's theory of linguistic relativism (determinism) need
  29. Binocular disparity need
  30. Blind spot – the point where the optic nerve leaves the eye. This creates a blind spot because no receptor cells are there.
  31. Blood brain barrier need
  32. Brain: what part do we share with animals? How do we differ?
  33. Brainstorming need
  34. Broca's aphasia (expressive) located in left frontal lobe – an impairment of speaking. Broca’s area controls language expression and directs the muscle movements involved in speech.
  35. Bystander intervention: factors that influence it
  36. Catharsis – emotional release. Hypothesis: releasing aggresive energy relieves aggressive urges.
  37. Cannon's critique of James-Lange theory need
  38. Carl Rogers: person (client) centered therapy
  39. Carol Gilligan's critique of Kohlberg's theory need
  40. Chaining need
  41. Character disorders : major ones
  42. Chunking – organizing material into familiar, manageable units. Helps with memory. Ex: 14921776190619422001 is better remembered as 1492, 1776, 1906, 1942, 2001.
  43. Classical conditioning (& can you distinguish it from operant conditioning) need
  44. Clever Hans experiment need
  45. Cognitive dissonance – conflict arises when a person has contrasting cognitions (thoughts).
  46. Color blindness: kinds need
  47. Complementary colors  need
  48. Conflicts: four kinds need
  49. Control group – the experimental group receiving no treatment.
  50. Cooper's research on visual processing (using cats) need
  51. Correlation coefficients need
  52. Cortexes of the brain : major ones needs
  53. Cross cultural studies
  54. Cross sectional studies – study where people of different ages are compared with each other.
  55. Crystallized intelligence  acquired knowledge and verbal skills; increases with age.  
  56. CS-CR-UCS-UCR
  57. Daniel Goleman's views on emotional intelligence
  58. David McClelland's achievement motivation studies
  59. Defense mechanisms: major ones
  60. Deindividuation
  61. Deinstitutionalization
  62. Dendrite (purpose of) – receive messages (from axons) and conduct impulsives toward the cell body.
  63. Depression: tricyclic antidepressants are most widely used to treat it
  64. Descriptive vs. inferential statistics
  65. Determinism
  66. Developmental psychology
  67. Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ( purpose and limits) – also known as the DSM. Widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
  68. Difference threshold (jnd) – minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection half of the time. Also called just noticeable difference (jnd).  
  69. Discrimination (in learning theory and race relations)
  70. Displacement
  71. Dissociative disorders
  72. Divergent vs. convergent thinking – divergent thinking: imagines multiple possible answers to a problem (i.e. What words began with the letter S?). Convergent thinking: only one answer is correct (tested by intelligence tests).
  73. Dominant responses (aided by social facilitation)
  74. Down's syndrome
  75. Dream analysis
  76. Drives
  77. Ebbinghaus' research on memory – learned lists of nonsense syllables to experiment with memory and rehearsal. He found that learning meaningful information was easier than the nonsense syllables. Made retention and forgetting curves. Proactive and retroactive interference associated with his ability to recall the lists.
  78. Echoic memory – sensory memory of auditory stimuli - sounds and words can be recalled within three or four seconds.
  79. Effects of marijuana
  80. Eidetic memory
  81. Electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT) – biomedical therapy for patients with severe depression. An electric current is sent through their brain while anesthetized.
  82. Elizabeth Loftus' research on eyewitness testimony
  83. Endocrine organs and hormones secreted by them
  84. Endorphins – natural opiate. Neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure.
  85. Engram
  86. Episodic memory (a.k.a. flashbulb)
  87. Equity theory of relationships
  88. Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development
  89. Ethics of testing
  90. Ethnocentrism
  91. Expectancy theory (aka mental set)
  92. Experiment: be able to design one
  93. False consensus effect
  94. Feature (signal) detector cells: Hubel & Wisel's research on visual processing
  95. Feature analysis
  96. Feral children
  97. Fetal alcohol syndrome: characteristics
  98. Figure - ground - phenomenon
  99. Flynn effect
  100. Foot-in-the-door phenomenon – tendency for people who first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
  101. Formal operations – people think logically about abstract concepts.
  102. Fovea – central focal point in the retina - cones cluster here.
  103. Francis Galton's research
  104. Free association – psychoanalysis - exploring the unconscious. Person says whatever comes to mind.
  105. Frequency polygon
  106. Freudian dream analysis: two levels of interpretation
  107. Freud's stages of psychosexual development
  108. Frustration-aggression hypothesis
  109. Functional fixedness – tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving.
  110. Fundamental attribution error – tendency for observers of another person to underestimate the impact of the situation and overestimate the impact of personal disposition. Ex: if someone is acting grouchy, you might assume that she's a grouchy person, even though she might just be having a bad day.
  111. Galvanic skin response (GRS)
  112. Ganglia
  113. Gansfeld Procedure
  114. Gate Control Theory of Pain
  115. Generalizability of a study
  116. Genotype & phenotype
  117. Gestalt theory
  118. Glial cells
  119. Group therapy (advantages of )
  120. Groupthink
  121. Gustatory sense: detects only sweet, sour, salty, bitter
  122. Habituation  – decreasing responses with repeated tests. Using the same test over again decreases accuracy.
  123. Hans Seyle's General Adaptation Response – also known as General Adaptation Syndrome or GAS: Alarm, Resistance, Exhaustion.
  124. Haptic memory
  125. Harry Harlow's research with surrogate mothers – worked with attachment. Had a monkey infant separated from its mother at birth. Two fake mothers were constructed: one was made of wire cage with a wooden head and a feeding bottle, and the other was made of terrycloth with a soft head. The infant liked the terry cloth mother more, even though it did not have a feeding bottle. Attachment happens through touch—the soft mother became a safe haven and secure base for the monkey. Contact is key.
  126. Hawthorne Effect (observer bias) – historical development of I/O psychology. Suggests that any workplace change (i.e. research study) makes people feel important and improves their performance. People associated with it are Roethlisberger and Dickson.
  127. Heuristics: major types
  128. Hierarchy of needs (Maslow) can you put them in order?
  129. High vs. low self-monitors
  130. Hindsight bias
  131. Histogram
  132. Homeostasis – tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state, such as body temperature or glucose level. This job belongs to the hypothalamus.
  133. Howard Gardner's view of multiple intelligence
  134. Hue – dimension of color determind by a light's wavelength. British term for color.
  135. Hybrid
  136. Hypnosis: major theories of
  137. Hypothalamus – located below the thalamus in the brain. Maintains homeostasis. Directs maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature) and helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. Is also linked to emotion.
  138. Id, ego, superego
  139. IDEAL (strategy for solving problems)
  140. Identical twin research
  141. Identification vs. internalization (Freudian terms)
  142. Illusory correlation – perception of a relationship where none exists.
  143. Imaging techniques: PET, CAT, MRI, FMRI
  144. Imprinting – some animals form attachments during a critical period when they are very yound. Ex: if you are the first thing a ducks sees after hatching, it will think you are its mother.
  145. Incentives
  146. Independent/dependent variables
  147. Induced motion
  148. Inductive vs. deductive reasoning
  149. Industrial (organizational) psychology
  150. Ingroup and outgroup bias
  151. Inner ear - vestibular sense
  152. Instinct
  153. Instrumental - operant conditioning
  154. Intelligence Quotient (I.Q.) – mental age divided by actual age, multipliled by 100. For instance, the IQ of someone with a mental age of 12 and an actual age of 10 is 120, because (12/10) * 100 = 120.
  155. Intelligence tests (major kinds used)
  156. Interference (proactive vs. retroactive) – also known as retroactive/proactive inhibition. Retroactive interference: new information makes it harder to recall something you learned earlier. Proactive interference: old information makes it harder to recall newer information.
  157. Internal consistency reliability
  158. Internalization
  159. Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation
  160. James-Lange theory of emotions – to experience emotion, you must be aware of your physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli. Emotions are identified based on physical response. Ex: My heart is beating rapidly and there are cold chills on my back --> I must be scared.
  161. John Garcia's ideas on the limits of conditioning
  162. Just-world phenomenon – people tend to believe that the world is just--people get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
  163. Karen Horney's views on development
  164. Kinesthetics
  165. Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning
  166. Kubler Ross' stages of dying
  167. L-dopa
  168. Learning curve
  169. Limbic system: structures and function
  170. Linear perspective
  171. Linkage analysis
  172. Lithium (bipolar disorders) – mood stabilizers used to treat bipolar disorder, manage acute manic phases, and reduce relapse. Can be easily toxic. Also called Eskolith and Lithobid
  173. Localization of sound (how is it done? Why are two ears needed?)
  174. Long-term potentiation (LTP) – strengthening of a sypnapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Neural basis for learning and memory. Less prompting is needed to release the neurotransmitter.
  175. Longitudinal study – a research method which investigates behavior as subjects age.
  176. Loss of information from short term memory
  177. Martin Seligman's "learned helplessness"
  178. Measures of central tendency: mean, median, mode
  179. Measures of variability: range and standard deviation
  180. Memory: kinds ( sensory, short-term, long-term)
  181. Mental age – the age that is applied to a level of intelligence. Made by Binet. Ex: someone who is mentally retarded may be 20 years old, but they will still have the mental age of a five year old.
  182. Mental set – tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially if it was successful in the past.
  183. Metacognition
  184. Method of Loci – a memory technique in which a person imagines herself moving through a familiar series of locations, associating each place with a visual representation of the topic that needs to be remembered. To retrieve the image, mentally revisit the location.
  185. Milieu therapy
  186. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Test: use for what? – a personality test used to identify emotional disorders, or for other screening purposes.
  187. Misinformation effect – misleading information is incorporated into one's memory of an event.
  188. Modeling process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.
  189. Monocular vs. binocular depth cues
  190. Motion aftereffect
  191. Motion parallax
  192. Myelin sheath: where and purpose? – layer of fatty tissue that encases neuron fibers. Increases the speed of neural impulses.
  193. Narcissism
  194. Nature vs. nurture controversy – controversy over which contributes more to the development of traits and behaviors: genes or experience?
  195. Nervous system: major parts – sympathetic nervous system: arouses the body, mobilizing energy in stressful situations. Ex: accelerates heartbeat, dilates pupils, inhibits digestion.
  196. Neuron: three basic parts
  197. Neurotransmitters: major kinds – Acetylcholine (ACh) - enables muscle action, learning and memory. Dopamine - influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion. Serotonin - affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal. Norepinephrine - helps control alertness and arousal. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) - inhhibitory neruotransmitter. Glutamate - excitatory neurotransmitter, involved in memory.
  198. Newborn baby reflexes
  199. Next-in-line-effect
  200. Normative social influence
  201. Norms
  202. Novelty preference
  203. Obesity (role of hypothalamus)
  204. Obsessive Compulsive Disorders (OCD)
  205. Occipital lobe
  206. Oedipal conflict – According to Freud, boys have sexual desires for their mothers, and feelings of jealousy and hatred toward their father.
  207. One eye problem - what you couldn't do well if you had only one eye
  208. Operationalizing a definition
  209. Opponent-process theory of emotions
  210. Opponent-process theory of visual processing (afterimages) – opposing retinal processes enable color vision (red–green, yellow–blue, white–black). For instance, some cells are stimulated by red and inhibited by green—this lets you see color. When you stare at a green square for a while, you tire your green response. Thus, when you look at a white square, you see green’s opponent color, red. Only the red part of the red–green pairing will fire normally.
  211. Optic disc
  212. Optic nerve
  213. Optimistic Explanatory Style
  214. Pancreas
  215. Panic attacks (& what's the best treatment?)
  216. Paradoxical sleep: why is REM called this? – Called paradoxical sleep because the muscles are relaxed (except for minor twitches) but other body systems are active
  217. Paresis
  218. Perceptual constancy (size, color, shape)
  219. Perceptual set
  220. Personal space
  221. Perspectives in psychology (major ones)
  222. Phenylketonuria (PKU)
  223. Phi phenomenon
  224. Phonemes vs. morphemes
  225. Photoreceptors
  226. Piaget's stages of cognitive development -- Four cognitive stages: 1) Birth to 2 yrs - sensorimotor stage - experience world with senses; 2) 2 yrs to 7 yrs - preoperational stage - worked with language, not logic; 3) 7 yrs to 11 yrs - concrete operational stage - worked with logic; 4) 12 yrs to adult - formal operational - abstract reasoning.
  227. Pineal gland (function and what makes it unique?)
  228. Pitch
  229. Pituitary gland
  230. Plasticity
  231. Positive and negative symptoms (in mental disorders)
  232. Positive reinforcement
  233. Post traumatic stress disorder
  234. Premack principle
  235. Primacy effect – facts, impressions, or items that are presented first are better learned/remembered than material presented later. Also called law of primacy, principle of primacy.
  236. Primary vs. secondary reinforcers
  237. Projective tests: TAT & Rorschach
  238. Prosocial behavior: what is it and give an example
  239. Proximity (effects on relationships)
  240. Prototype
  241. Punishment: why it may not be effective and might backfire
  242. Rational Emotive Therapy
  243. Reality principle (function of ego)
  244. Recessive vs. dominant genes
  245. Reflex arc
  246. Reliability vs. validity in testing
  247. REM sleep – Rapid Eye Movement sleep.Recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams occur. Also called paradoxical sleep.
  248. Repression
  249. Reticular formation: related to sleep, arousal, attention
  250. Retinal disparity (a.k.a. binocular disparity)
  251. Robert Rescorla's findings on conditioning
  252. Rods and cones (structures & differences)
  253. Rooting reflex – when touched on the cheek, a newborn baby will turn its head toward the touch and search for a nipple with its mouth.
  254. Sample
  255. Scatterplot: most often used to plot correlations
  256. Schedules of reinforcement (5 kinds - which are most effective?)
  257. Schema
  258. Schizophrenia
  259. Selective attention – the focus of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus. Cocktail party effect—able to focus on one voice in a roomful of voices.
  260. Self-efficacy
  261. Self-fulfilling prophecy
  262. Self-serving bias
  263. Semantic memory
  264. Serial position effect
  265. Set point
  266. Sexual characteristics (primary vs. secondary)
  267. Sexual identity vs. gender identity
  268. Shaping
  269. Signal detection theory
  270. Sleep disorders: major kinds
  271. Sleeper effect
  272. Social cognitive theory
  273. Social exchange theory
  274. Social facilitation – presence of others boosts performance. Ex: people do better when racing against others than when racing against the clock.
  275. Social loafing – tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when working towards attaining a common goal (as opposed to working as individuals)
  276. Social trap
  277. Somatoform disorders: major kinds
  278. Somatosensory cortex: location and used for what sense?
  279. Stages of learning (acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, etc.) – Extinction: the weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response.
  280. Standard deviation
  281. Stanley Milgram's experiment with obedience – Social psychologist, worked with obedience. In his famous experiments, a "teacher" administers a shock to a "learner" whenever the learner gets a question wrong. The electric shocks were staged--the teacher thought they were real, but the learner knew they were not. With more wrong answers, the shocks increase in voltage. The teacher has to choose between obeying the experimenter supervising the teacher, who urges them to continue, or the learner who is in apparent pain, who begs them to stop. 63% of men proceeded to the final 450 volt shock. Teachers were most likely to obey when 1) the experimenter was nearby and with presitigious affiliation (i.e. Yale professor), 2) the victim was distanced or depersonalized, and 3) when they were told that no other teacher defied the experimenter
  282. Stanley Schachter's Two Factor Theory
  283. Stereotype
  284. Stimulus generalization
  285. Stranger anxiety
  286. Syllogism
  287. Systematic desensitization: a.k.a. a kind of counterconditioning
  288. Tay-Sachs disease
  289. Testable hypothesis
  290. Thalamus (& what sense doesn't get routed through here?)
  291. Thorndike's Law of Effect
  292. Thyroid gland
  293. Tip-of-the-tongue effect
  294. Token economy
  295. Tourette's syndrome
  296. Tragedy of the commons
  297. Transduction
  298. Turner's syndrome (X with missing chromosome)
  299. Two kinds of deafness: Conductive and nerve
  300. Validity: different kinds – concurrent validity: Assessing a test’s validity by comparing its results with a different but related test at the same point in time.
  301. Vestibular sense
  302. Visual cliff
  303. Water balance (role of hypothalamus)
  304. Weber's law -- To be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a contact minimum percentage, as opposed to a constant amount.
  305. Wernicke's aphasia (receptive) located in left temporal lobe – impairs understanding. Wernicke’s area controls language reception and comprehension.
  306. Wilder Penfield's research on the brain
  307. Wilhelm Wundt (structuralism)
  308. William James (functionalism)
  309. Yerkes/Dodson Arousal Law
  310. Zajonc's "Mere Exposure Effect" – an increase of exposure to something leads to a greater liking of it.
  311. Zimbardo's prison experiment

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