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crib sheet

Page history last edited by PBworks 15 years, 1 month ago
 
A.P. Psychology Crib Notes
People:
Wundt- "Father of Psychology": Introspection
Wertheimer- Gestalt Psychology
Titchner- Structuralism
James- Functionalism
Watson- Behaviorism; "Little Albert Study"
Freud- Psychoanalytic; dream analysis; free association; structure of personality; stages of development; defense mechanisms
Milgram- Obedience; Ethics
Broca- left frontal lobe: associated with expressive language
Wernike- left frontal lobe: receptive language
Pavlov- Classical conditioning: dogs
Thorndike- Instrumental learning: cats; law of effect
Skinner- Operant conditioning: rats and pigeons; Behaviorist
Tolman- Latent learning; cognitive maps
Bandura- Observational learning: Bobo Dolls, Social-Cognitive Theory
Ebbinghaus- Forgetting: Decay Model
Chornsky- (Native Theorist) Inherent Existence of sets of cognitive structures
Whorf- Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
Washoe, Sara and Koko- Ape language studies
Jung- Collective unconscious; archetypes; Psychoanalytic
Horney- Basic childhood anxiety; Psychoanalytic
Erickson- Life crisis; psycho-social development; Psychoanalytic
Adler- Inferiority Complex; Psychoanalytic
Piaget- Stages of Cognitive Development; Cognitive theorist
Rogers- Client-centered; unconditional positive regard; transactional Analysis
Albert Ellis- Rational Emotive Therapy; Cognitive Theorist
Abraham Maslow- Hierarchy of Needs; Humanistic
Sheldon- Somatotyping: endomorph, mesomorph, ectomorph
Binet- I.Q.
Eysenck- Biological model of Personality; Trait-type hierarchy
Harlow- Monkey Studies; Attachment
Lorenz- "Survival of the Fittest Theory" and imprinting
Phineus Gage- Railroad spike; damaged (limbic system), emotions/motivational control center
Aaron Beck- Cognitive therapy treating depression
Murray- Need to achieve; TAT
Allport- Trait Approach-cardinal, central, secondary
Cattell- Crystallized Fluid Intelligence
Kelley- Personal Construct Theory
Mishel- Social-learning theory
Gilligan- examined moral differences between boys and girls based on social rules and on ethic of caring and responsibility (turtle and Hare scenario)
 
Approaches:
General:
            Behaviorism- Environmental: learning; nurture
            Biological- Physiology; genetics; nature
            Cognitive- Mental Processes
            Psychoanalytical- Unconscious, childhood
Humanistic- Freewill; basis goodness
Multicultural- Sociocultural; role of structure
Gestalt- Emphasizes the organization process in behavior. Focuses on problem of perception
 
Personality:
            Psychoanalytic- People are driven by instincts, largely sexual
            Behaviorist- Behavior is personality; determined by history of reinforcement
Humanistic- People are inherently good, society ruins them, people strive to satisfy a hierarchy of motives toward self-actualization
Cognitive- People are rational and want to predict and control their world, personal constructs help in this process
Biological- Biological factors such as body type or genetics
 
Abnormal:
Psychoanalytic- Emerge from initial psychological conflicts that are unconscious, often arising from childhood trauma
Biomedical- Traceable to physical abnormalities, biochemistry, structural defects
Cognitive- Results from unusual ways of thinking, inappropriate belief system
Behavioral- Results from faulty contingencies of reinforcement contexts contribute to the development of psychological disorders
Cultural- Variables such as social class, gender and rural-urban contexts contribute to the development of psychological disorders
Humanistic/Existential Model- Results from Failure to fulfill ones potential
 
Treatment:
            Biomedical       a) ECT
                                    b) Psychosurgery; ablation
                                    c) Chemotherapy
                                    d) Intensive light therapy (S.A.D.)
            Psychoanalytic Therapy- Alleviate unconscious conflicts
a)      Free association
b)      Dream analysis
c)      Transference
d)      Symptom substitution
Behavior Therapy-application of learning principles
a)      Systematic desensitization
1)      In vivo desensitization
2)      Counter Conditioning
b)      Flooding- real event
c)      Implosive therapy- imagine the event
d)      Aversion therapy
Cognitive-Behavior Therapy-thoughts and behavior
a)      modeling and role play
b)      Rational-emotive therapy-forces a more realistic look in the evaluating circumstances
c)      Stress- inoculation therapy-retractors inappropriate thinking
d)      Cognitive therapy- used for depression; requires the restructuring of persons invalid perceptions of self, future and the world or experience
Humanistic-focuses on getting the person to accept the responsibility for their improvement
a)      Rogers' client-centered therapy
1)      unconditioned positive regard
b)      Frankl's existential analysis-treatment attempts to help client gain sense of purpose and meaning
c)      Gestalt therapy- client comes into contact with the whole self
Gestalt- focuses on integrating the whole person
a)      Developed by Fritz Perls
b)      Utilizes role playing and acting out
c)      Focuses on the "now" experience
Biomedical Treatment- includes medical procedures and medication that can help alleviate symptoms of psychological disorders
1)      Psycho-surgery (ablation)
-Surgical destruction of involved brain tissue
-Obsessive-compulsive disorder
2)      Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
-Major depression
3)      Psychopharmacological treatment
A)    Neroleptics (antisychotics) i.e. Thorine, Holdol, Clozeril
B)     Antidepressants i.e. Tricylis compounds, selective serotonin reuptuke inhibitors, Prozac
C)    Lithium Carbonate (treat bipolar disorder)
D)    Anxiolytics (anti anxiety) such as Valium or other benzodiazepines
 
The Experiment:
1.         Two variables are studied for cause and effect
a.       Independent variable-manipulated
b.      Dependent variable- the response to be manipulated; measured
c.       Confounding variable- other variables hat may influence results
d.      Experiment group- exposed to manipulation of independent variable
e.       Control group- an unaffected comparison group
f.        Subject bias- a subject's behavior changes due to believed expectations of experiment
g.       Researcher bias- expectations influence what is recorded
h.       Double-blind technique- control for bias by keeping placement of subject secret
i.         Placebo- inactive substance unknowingly given in place of drug
j.        Null hypothesis- negatively expressed hypothesis; X will not change Y
Theories:
Piaget's Cognitive-Development Theory:
a)      Sensory Motor-      Schema assimilation and accommodation
Circular reaction
Object permanence
            b) Preoperational-        egocentrism
                                                Animism
                                                Artificalism
            c) Concrete-                 Operational-reversibility
                                                Conservative problems
            d) Formal-                    Operational-personal fable
Kohlberg's Moral Judgment:
a)      Preconventional-good and bad, right and wrong
b)      Conventional-social rules
c)      Postconventional-universal principles
Erickson's Psychosocial Development:
INFACNY                  a) trust vs. mistrust
                                    b) Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
 
CHILDHOOD             c) initiative vs. guilt
                        d) Industry vs. territory
 
                                                                                                                       
ADOLESCENCE        e) identity vs. role confusion
 
ADULTHOOD            f) intimacy vs. isolation
g) Generality vs. stagnation
                                    h) Ego integrity vs. despair
 
Kubler-Ross' Stages of Death
1)      denial
2)      anger
3)      bargaining
4)      depression
5)      acceptance
 
Theories:
Weber's law- just noticeable difference
Young-Helmholtz Color Theory- (trichromatic theory)- color determined by he relative activity in red, blue, or green sensitive cones
Opponent-Process Color Theory- Color information is organized into 3 antagonistic pairs
Place Theory- relates perceived pitch to region
Frequency Theory- related pitch to the frequency of sound waves and frequency of neuron firing
Facial Feedback hypothesis- sensations from the face provide cues to the brain that help us determine what emotion we are feeling (Ekman)
Statistical Significance- .05 chance accounts for results less then 5% of the time
Template-Matching Theory-stored copies
Prototype-Matching Theory-recognition involves comparison
Feature-Analysis Theory-patterns are represented and recognized by distinctive features
Restorative Theory-We sleep in order to replenish
Adaptive Nonresponding Theory-sleep and inactivity have survived value
Activation-Synthesis hypothesis-dreams are products of spontaneous neural activity
Thorndike's Law of effect-reward and punishment encourages and discourages responding; Thorndike
Premack principle-states that any high-probability behavior can be used as a reward for any lower-probability behavior
Continuity vs. Discontinuity-theories of development, nature vs. nurture
Serial position phenomenon-sequence influences recall
Primacy effect-enhanced memory for items presented earlier
Recency effect-enhanced memory for items presented last
Decay theory-forgetting caused by learning similar materials
a)      proactive-initially
b)      retroactive-previously
Linguistic relativity hypothesis-person's language determines and limits a persons experiences
Hull's drive-reduction model-motivation arises out of need
Cognitive consistency theory-cognitive inconsistencies create tension and thus motivate the organism
Festinger's Cognitive dissonance theory-reconcile cognitive discrepancies
Arousal Theories-we all have optimal levels of stimulation that we try to maintain
Yerkes-Dodson law-arousal will increase performances up to a point, then further increases will impair performance; inverted U function
Incentive theory-behavior is pulled rather then pushed
James-Lange theory-emotion is caused by bodily changes
Cannon-Bard's Thalamic theory-emotional expression caused by simultaneous changing bodily event thoughts and feelings
Schachter's Cognitive-Physiological Theory-bodily changes, current stimuli, events, and memories combine to determine behavior
Attribution theory-explains how people make inferences about the causes of behavior; personal or situational; self-serving bias
Deindividuation-loss of self-restraint that occurs out of anonymity
Contact theory-proposes that equal-status contact between antagonistic groups should lower tension and bring harmony
Selye's General Adaptation Syndrome- (GAS) emergency reaction to stressful situations Alarm reaction, resistance and exhaustion
Lazaru's Cognitive-Psychological Model-emphasizes the process of appraisal (primary and secondary) as the primary determinant of stress
Twin Studies-allows a researcher to test influence of heredity v. environment
Personal Construct Theory-unique system of reality
Deinstitutionalization-occurred because of changes in political policy and development of new drug therapies
Ainsworth's Strange Situation-looked at attachment in young children to their parents
 
Social Psychology Studies:
Zimbardo's Prison Study-effect of roles
Hawthorne Effect-people change their behavior when they thing that they're being observed
Dailey and Latane's Bystander effect-diffusion of responsibility (Kitty Genovese Case Study)
Asche Conformity Study-Lines of different lengths 75% at lease once
Milgram's Obedience Study-Shocking the confederate 65% delivered full range
Sherif-"Autokinetic phenomenon", conformity studies. Social Psychologist
 
Social Pressure:
1.      Conformity-occurs when individuals adopt the attitudes or behavior of others because of real or imagined pressure
2.      Social Norms-shared standards of behavior
3.      Reciprocity norm-people tend to treat others as they have been treated
4.      Compliance-to get along with a request made of you from a person who does not have authority over you, techniques include:
  1. Foot in the door technique-if a small request is made first a larger request will be easier to fill later
  2. Door in the face technique-making a larger request first then making a smaller one which will seem more reasonable
  3. Low balling-getting agreement first, then adding specifics later
5.      Obedience-compliance with someone who has authority
 
Altruism: Self concern for others
 
1.      Bystander intervention-will individuals intervene in a harmful situation to another
2.      Bystander effect-people are less likely to help when several people witness an emergency due to diffusion of responsibility, thinking that someone else can be responsible
3.      Social facilitation-tendency to do better on well-learned tasks when another person is present
4.      Social loafing-reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups compared to by themselves
5.      Risky shift-groups often arrive at riskier decisions than do individuals
6.      Deindividuation-loss of identity as a result of being part of a group
7.      Groupthink-members of a cohesive group emphasize agreement at the expense of critical thinking
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

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